American Urological Association - Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- Cytologic features:
- Large flat polygonal cells with "hard" (dense) cytoplasm; usually stain pink on a pap smear (image A).
- Nuclei should be round with smooth borders and finely distributed chromatin.
- N:C ratio should be very low (small nucleus, lots of cytoplasm) – generally <1:2 (image B).
- Increased numbers may be seen in normal urine.
- As a contaminant from the distal urethra, vagina, or vulva.
- In cases of squamous metaplasia, usually of the bladder trigone (seen in 40% of females and in men undergoing estrogen therapy for prostate cancer).
- In cases of chronic irritation and inflammation.