- Involves the GU tract in 1% of cases, mostly in the bladder.
- Encountered in reproductive age females (ave. 35 years old) and very rarely, postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement or men receiving estrogen for treatment of prostate cancer.
- About half of patients have prior pelvic surgery.
- Involves mucosa, bladder wall or serosa.
- Cystoscopy shows mucosal nodule with hemorrhage or is unremarkable if the lesion is away from mucosa.
- Histology: requires presence of endometrial glands (G), stroma (S) and recent or old hemorrhage for diagnosis (image A).
- Rare and encountered in females in their 40's or 50's.
- Presence of endocervical-like glands in bladder muscular wall (mostly), mucosa or serosa.
- Single layer of mucinous columnar cells with interspersed ciliated cells (image B).
- Benign lesion, with no documented risk for malignant transformation.
- Presence of tubal-like tubules and glands lined by ciliated cells in the bladder.
- Encountered in reproductive age females.
- Mixture of any of these lesions in the bladder.
Important not to misdiagnosis these lesions as adenocarcinoma involving the bladder.